curl(1) - transfer a URL



  • curl(1) 			  Curl Manual			       curl(1)
    
    NAME
           curl - transfer a URL
    
    SYNOPSIS
           curl [options] [URL...]
    
    DESCRIPTION
           curl  is  a tool to transfer data from or to a server, using one of the
           supported protocols (DICT, FILE, FTP, FTPS, GOPHER, HTTP, HTTPS,  IMAP,
           IMAPS,  LDAP,  LDAPS,  POP3,  POP3S,  RTMP, RTSP, SCP, SFTP, SMB, SMBS,
           SMTP, SMTPS, TELNET and TFTP). The command is designed to work  without
           user interaction.
    
           curl offers a busload of useful tricks like proxy support, user authen‐
           tication, FTP upload, HTTP post, SSL connections, cookies, file	trans‐
           fer  resume,  Metalink,	and more. As you will see below, the number of
           features will make your head spin!
    
           curl is powered by  libcurl  for  all  transfer-related	features.  See
           libcurl(3) for details.
    
    URL
           The  URL  syntax is protocol-dependent. You'll find a detailed descrip‐
           tion in RFC 3986.
    
           You can specify multiple URLs or parts of URLs  by  writing  part  sets
           within braces as in:
    
    	 http://site.{one,two,three}.com
    
           or you can get sequences of alphanumeric series by using [] as in:
    
    	 ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[1-100].txt
    
    	 ftp://ftp.numericals.com/file[001-100].txt    (with leading zeros)
    
    	 ftp://ftp.letters.com/file[a-z].txt
    
           Nested  sequences  are not supported, but you can use several ones next
           to each other:
    
    	 http://any.org/archive[1996-1999]/vol[1-4]/part{a,b,c}.html
    
           You can specify any amount of URLs on the command line.	They  will  be
           fetched in a sequential manner in the specified order.
    
           You  can  specify a step counter for the ranges to get every Nth number
           or letter:
    
    	 http://www.numericals.com/file[1-100:10].txt
    
    	 http://www.letters.com/file[a-z:2].txt
    
           When using [] or {} sequences when invoked from a command line  prompt,
           you probably have to put the full URL within double quotes to avoid the
           shell from interfering with it. This also  goes	for  other  characters
           treated special, like for example '&', '?' and '*'.
    
           Provide	the IPv6 zone index in the URL with an escaped percentage sign
           and the interface name. Like in
    
    	 http://[fe80::3%25eth0]/
    
           If you specify URL without protocol:// prefix,  curl  will  attempt  to
           guess  what  protocol  you might want. It will then default to HTTP but
           try other protocols based on often-used host name prefixes.  For  exam‐
           ple,  for  host names starting with "ftp." curl will assume you want to
           speak FTP.
    
           curl will do its best to use what you pass to it as a URL.  It  is  not
           trying  to  validate it as a syntactically correct URL by any means but
           is instead very liberal with what it accepts.
    
           curl will attempt to re-use connections for multiple file transfers, so
           that  getting many files from the same server will not do multiple con‐
           nects / handshakes. This improves speed. Of course this is only done on
           files  specified  on  a	single command line and cannot be used between
           separate curl invokes.
    
    PROGRESS METER
           curl normally displays a progress meter during  operations,  indicating
           the  amount  of	transferred  data,  transfer speeds and estimated time
           left, etc.
    
           curl displays this data to the terminal by default, so  if  you	invoke
           curl  to do an operation and it is about to write data to the terminal,
           it disables the progress meter as otherwise it would mess up the output
           mixing progress meter and response data.
    
           If you want a progress meter for HTTP POST or PUT requests, you need to
           redirect the response output to a file, using shell  redirect  (>),  -o
           [file] or similar.
    
           It  is not the same case for FTP upload as that operation does not spit
           out any response data to the terminal.
    
           If you prefer a progress "bar" instead of the regular meter, -# is your
           friend.
    
    OPTIONS
           Options	start  with  one or two dashes. Many of the options require an
           additional value next to them.
    
           The short "single-dash" form of the options, -d	for  example,  may  be
           used with or without a space between it and its value, although a space
           is a recommended separator. The long  "double-dash"  form,  --data  for
           example, requires a space between it and its value.
    
           Short version options that don't need any additional values can be used
           immediately next to each other, like for example you  can  specify  all
           the options -O, -L and -v at once as -OLv.
    
           In general, all boolean options are enabled with --option and yet again
           disabled with --no-option. That is, you use the exact same option  name
           but prefix it with "no-". However, in this list we mostly only list and
           show the --option version of them. (This concept with --no options  was
           added  in  7.19.0.  Previously  most  options  were  toggled  on/off on
           repeated use of the same command line option.)
    
           -#, --progress-bar
    	      Make curl display progress as a simple progress bar  instead  of
    	      the standard, more informational, meter.
    
           -:, --next
    	      Tells curl to use a separate operation for the following URL and
    	      associated  options.  This  allows  you  to  send  several   URL
    	      requests,  each  with  their  own specific options, for example,
    	      such as different user names or custom requests for each. (Added
    	      in 7.36.0)
    
           -0, --http1.0
    	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl to use HTTP version 1.0 instead of using its
    	      internally preferred: HTTP 1.1.
    
           --http1.1
    	      (HTTP) Tells curl to use HTTP version 1.1. This is the  internal
    	      default version. (Added in 7.33.0)
    
           --http2
    	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to  issue  its  requests using HTTP 2. This
    	      requires that the underlying libcurl was built  to  support  it.
    	      (Added in 7.33.0)
    
           --no-npn
    	      Disable  the  NPN  TLS  extension.  NPN is enabled by default if
    	      libcurl was built with an SSL library that supports NPN. NPN  is
    	      used  by a libcurl that supports HTTP 2 to negotiate HTTP 2 sup‐
    	      port with the server during https sessions.
    
    	      (Added in 7.36.0)
    
           --no-alpn
    	      Disable the ALPN TLS extension. ALPN is enabled  by  default  if
    	      libcurl  was  built with an SSL library that supports ALPN. ALPN
    	      is used by a libcurl that supports HTTP 2 to  negotiate  HTTP  2
    	      support with the server during https sessions.
    
    	      (Added in 7.36.0)
    
           -1, --tlsv1
    	      (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.x when negotiating with a
    	      remote TLS server.  You can use  options	--tlsv1.0,  --tlsv1.1,
    	      and  --tlsv1.2 to control the TLS version more precisely (if the
    	      SSL backend in use supports such a level of control).
    
           -2, --sslv2
    	      (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 2 when negotiating  with  a
    	      remote  SSL  server.  Sometimes curl is built without SSLv2 sup‐
    	      port. SSLv2 is widely considered insecure (see RFC 6176).
    
           -3, --sslv3
    	      (SSL) Forces curl to use SSL version 3 when negotiating  with  a
    	      remote  SSL  server.  Sometimes curl is built without SSLv3 sup‐
    	      port. SSLv3 is widely considered insecure (see RFC 7568).
    
           -4, --ipv4
    	      This option tells curl to resolve names to IPv4 addresses  only,
    	      and not for example try IPv6.
    
           -6, --ipv6
    	      This  option tells curl to resolve names to IPv6 addresses only,
    	      and not for example try IPv4.
    
           -a, --append
    	      (FTP/SFTP) When used in an upload, this makes curl append to the
    	      target  file  instead  of  overwriting  it.  If  the remote file
    	      doesn't exist, it will be  created.   Note  that	this  flag  is
    	      ignored by some SFTP servers (including OpenSSH).
    
           -A, --user-agent 
    	      (HTTP) Specify the User-Agent string to send to the HTTP server.
    	      Some  badly  done  CGIs  fail  if  this  field  isn't   set   to
    	      "Mozilla/4.0".  To  encode  blanks  in  the string, surround the
    	      string with single quote marks. This can also be	set  with  the
    	      -H, --header option of course.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --anyauth
    	      (HTTP) Tells curl to figure out authentication method by itself,
    	      and use the most secure one the remote site claims  to  support.
    	      This is done by first doing a request and checking the response-
    	      headers, thus possibly inducing  an  extra  network  round-trip.
    	      This  is	used  instead  of  setting  a  specific authentication
    	      method, which you can do with  --basic,  --digest,  --ntlm,  and
    	      --negotiate.
    
    	      Note  that  using --anyauth is not recommended if you do uploads
    	      from stdin, since it may require data to be sent twice and  then
    	      the client must be able to rewind. If the need should arise when
    	      uploading from stdin, the upload operation will fail.
    
           -b, --cookie 
    	      (HTTP) Pass the data to the HTTP server as a cookie. It is  sup‐
    	      posedly  the data previously received from the server in a "Set-
    	      Cookie:" line.  The data should be in the format	"NAME1=VALUE1;
    	      NAME2=VALUE2".
    
    	      If  no  '=' symbol is used in the line, it is treated as a file‐
    	      name to use to read previously stored cookie lines  from,  which
    	      should  be used in this session if they match. Using this method
    	      also activates the cookie engine which  will  make  curl	record
    	      incoming cookies too, which may be handy if you're using this in
    	      combination with the -L, --location option. The file  format  of
    	      the  file  to  read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or
    	      the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format.
    
    	      The file specified with -b, --cookie is only used as  input.  No
    	      cookies  will  be written to the file. To store cookies, use the
    	      -c, --cookie-jar option.
    
    	      Exercise caution if you  are  using  this  option  and  multiple
    	      transfers may occur.  If you use the NAME1=VALUE1; format, or in
    	      a file use the Set-Cookie format and  don't  specify  a  domain,
    	      then the cookie is sent for any domain (even after redirects are
    	      followed) and cannot be modified by a server-set cookie. If  the
    	      cookie  engine is enabled and a server sets a cookie of the same
    	      name then both will be sent on a future transfer to that server,
    	      likely  not  what  you  intended.  To address these issues set a
    	      domain in Set-Cookie (doing that will  include  sub-domains)  or
    	      use the Netscape format.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           -B, --use-ascii
    	      (FTP/LDAP)  Enable  ASCII  transfer.  For  FTP, this can also be
    	      enforced by using an URL that ends with ";type=A".  This	option
    	      causes data sent to stdout to be in text mode for win32 systems.
    
           --basic
    	      (HTTP)  Tells  curl  to  use  HTTP Basic authentication with the
    	      remote host. This is the default	and  this  option  is  usually
    	      pointless, unless you use it to override a previously set option
    	      that sets a different authentication  method  (such  as  --ntlm,
    	      --digest, or --negotiate).
    
    	      Used together with -u, --user and -x, --proxy.
    
    	      See also --proxy-basic.
    
           -c, --cookie-jar 
    	      (HTTP)  Specify to which file you want curl to write all cookies
    	      after a completed operation. Curl writes all cookies  previously
    	      read  from a specified file as well as all cookies received from
    	      remote server(s). If no cookies are known, no data will be writ‐
    	      ten.  The  file  will  be written using the Netscape cookie file
    	      format. If you set the file name to  a  single  dash,  "-",  the
    	      cookies will be written to stdout.
    
    	      This  command  line  option will activate the cookie engine that
    	      makes curl record and use cookies. Another way to activate it is
    	      to use the -b, --cookie option.
    
    	      If the cookie jar can't be created or written to, the whole curl
    	      operation won't fail or even report an error clearly.  Using  -v
    	      will get a warning displayed, but that is the only visible feed‐
    	      back you get about this possibly lethal situation.
    
    	      Since 7.43.0 cookies that were imported in the Set-Cookie format
    	      without a domain name are not exported by this option.
    
    	      If  this	option	is used several times, the last specified file
    	      name will be used.
    
           -C, --continue-at 
    	      Continue/Resume a previous file transfer at  the	given  offset.
    	      The  given  offset  is  the  exact  number of bytes that will be
    	      skipped, counting from the beginning of the source  file	before
    	      it is transferred to the destination.  If used with uploads, the
    	      FTP server command SIZE will not be used by curl.
    
    	      Use "-C -" to tell curl to automatically find out  where/how  to
    	      resume  the  transfer. It then uses the given output/input files
    	      to figure that out.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --ciphers 
    	      (SSL) Specifies which ciphers to use in the connection. The list
    	      of  ciphers  must  specify  valid ciphers. Read up on SSL cipher
    	      list	    details	      on	   this 	  URL:
    	      https://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html
    
    	      NSS  ciphers  are  done differently than OpenSSL and GnuTLS. The
    	      full list of NSS ciphers is in the NSSCipherSuite entry at  this
    	      URL:					   https://git.fedora‐
    	      hosted.org/cgit/mod_nss.git/plain/docs/mod_nss.html#Directives
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --compressed
    	      (HTTP) Request a compressed response using one of the algorithms
    	      curl  supports,  and  save  the  uncompressed document.  If this
    	      option is used and the server  sends  an	unsupported  encoding,
    	      curl will report an error.
    
           --connect-timeout 
    	      Maximum  time  in  seconds  that	you allow curl's connection to
    	      take.  This only limits the connection phase, so	if  curl  con‐
    	      nects  within the given period it will continue - if not it will
    	      exit.  Since version 7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values.
    
    	      See also the -m, --max-time option.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --create-dirs
    	      When used in conjunction with the -o option,  curl  will	create
    	      the  necessary  local directory hierarchy as needed. This option
    	      creates the dirs mentioned with the -o option, nothing else.  If
    	      the  -o file name uses no dir or if the dirs it mentions already
    	      exist, no dir will be created.
    
    	      To create remote directories when using FTP or SFTP, try	--ftp-
    	      create-dirs.
    
           --crlf Convert LF to CRLF in upload. Useful for MVS (OS/390).
    
    	      (SMTP added in 7.40.0)
    
           --crlfile 
    	      (HTTPS/FTPS)  Provide a file using PEM format with a Certificate
    	      Revocation List that may specify peer certificates that  are  to
    	      be considered revoked.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
    	      (Added in 7.19.7)
    
           -d, --data 
    	      (HTTP)  Sends  the  specified data in a POST request to the HTTP
    	      server, in the same way that a browser  does  when  a  user  has
    	      filled  in an HTML form and presses the submit button. This will
    	      cause curl to pass the data to the server using the content-type
    	      application/x-www-form-urlencoded.  Compare to -F, --form.
    
    	      -d, --data is the same as --data-ascii. --data-raw is almost the
    	      same but does not have a special interpretation of the @ charac‐
    	      ter.  To	post  data  purely  binary, you should instead use the
    	      --data-binary option.  To URL-encode the value of a  form  field
    	      you may use --data-urlencode.
    
    	      If  any of these options is used more than once on the same com‐
    	      mand line, the data pieces specified  will  be  merged  together
    	      with  a  separating  &-symbol.  Thus,  using  '-d name=daniel -d
    	      skill=lousy'  would  generate  a	post  chunk  that  looks  like
    	      'name=daniel&skill=lousy'.
    
    	      If  you  start  the data with the letter @, the rest should be a
    	      file name to read the data from, or - if you want curl  to  read
    	      the data from stdin. Multiple files can also be specified. Post‐
    	      ing data from a file named 'foobar'  would  thus	be  done  with
    	      --data  @foobar.	When  --data  is told to read from a file like
    	      that, carriage returns and newlines will be stripped out. If you
    	      don't  want the @ character to have a special interpretation use
    	      --data-raw instead.
    
           -D, --dump-header 
    	      Write the protocol headers to the specified file.
    
    	      This option is handy to use when you want to store  the  headers
    	      that  an	HTTP site sends to you. Cookies from the headers could
    	      then be read in a  second  curl  invocation  by  using  the  -b,
    	      --cookie	option! The -c, --cookie-jar option is a better way to
    	      store cookies.
    
    	      When used in FTP, the FTP server response lines  are  considered
    	      being "headers" and thus are saved there.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --data-ascii 
    	      See -d, --data.
    
           --data-binary 
    	      (HTTP)  This  posts data exactly as specified with no extra pro‐
    	      cessing whatsoever.
    
    	      If you start the data with the letter @, the rest  should  be  a
    	      filename.   Data	is  posted in a similar manner as --data-ascii
    	      does, except that newlines and carriage  returns	are  preserved
    	      and conversions are never done.
    
    	      If  this	option	is  used several times, the ones following the
    	      first will append data as described in -d, --data.
    
           --data-raw 
    	      (HTTP) This posts data similarly to --data but without the  spe‐
    	      cial  interpretation of the @ character. See -d, --data.	(Added
    	      in 7.43.0)
    
           --data-urlencode 
    	      (HTTP) This posts data, similar to the other --data options with
    	      the exception that this performs URL-encoding. (Added in 7.18.0)
    
    	      To  be  CGI-compliant,  the  part should begin with a name
    	      followed by a separator and a content specification. The	
    	      part can be passed to curl using one of the following syntaxes:
    
    	      content
    		     This  will make curl URL-encode the content and pass that
    		     on. Just be careful so that the content  doesn't  contain
    		     any  =  or  @  symbols, as that will then make the syntax
    		     match one of the other cases below!
    
    	      =content
    		     This will make curl URL-encode the content and pass  that
    		     on. The preceding = symbol is not included in the data.
    
    	      name=content
    		     This  will make curl URL-encode the content part and pass
    		     that on. Note that the name part is expected to  be  URL-
    		     encoded already.
    
    	      @filename
    		     This  will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given file
    		     (including any newlines), URL-encode that data  and  pass
    		     it on in the POST.
    
    	      name@filename
    		     This  will  make  curl  load  data  from  the  given file
    		     (including any newlines), URL-encode that data  and  pass
    		     it  on  in  the  POST.  The  name part gets an equal sign
    		     appended, resulting in name=urlencoded-file-content. Note
    		     that the name is expected to be URL-encoded already.
    
           --delegation LEVEL
    	      Set LEVEL to tell the server what it is allowed to delegate when
    	      it comes to user credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos.
    
    	      none   Don't allow any delegation.
    
    	      policy Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag  is  set
    		     in  the  Kerberos	service  ticket,  which is a matter of
    		     realm policy.
    
    	      always Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.
    
           --digest
    	      (HTTP) Enables HTTP Digest authentication. This is an  authenti‐
    	      cation  scheme  that  prevents the password from being sent over
    	      the wire in clear text. Use this in combination with the	normal
    	      -u,  --user  option  to  set  user  name	and password. See also
    	      --ntlm, --negotiate and --anyauth for related options.
    
    	      If this option is used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
    	      used.
    
           --disable-eprt
    	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use of the EPRT and LPRT commands
    	      when doing active FTP transfers. Curl will normally always first
    	      attempt  to use EPRT, then LPRT before using PORT, but with this
    	      option, it will use PORT right away. EPRT and  LPRT  are	exten‐
    	      sions  to  the  original	FTP  protocol, and may not work on all
    	      servers, but they enable more functionality in a better way than
    	      the traditional PORT command.
    
    	      --eprt can be used to explicitly enable EPRT again and --no-eprt
    	      is an alias for --disable-eprt.
    
    	      Disabling EPRT only changes the active behavior. If you want  to
    	      switch  to  passive  mode  you need to not use -P, --ftp-port or
    	      force it with --ftp-pasv.
    
           --disable-epsv
    	      (FTP) Tell curl to disable the use  of  the  EPSV  command  when
    	      doing  passive  FTP  transfers.  Curl will normally always first
    	      attempt to use EPSV before PASV, but with this option,  it  will
    	      not try using EPSV.
    
    	      --epsv can be used to explicitly enable EPSV again and --no-epsv
    	      is an alias for --disable-epsv.
    
    	      Disabling EPSV only changes the passive behavior. If you want to
    	      switch to active mode you need to use -P, --ftp-port.
    
           --dns-interface 
    	      Tell  curl  to  send  outgoing DNS requests through .
    	      This option is a counterpart  to	--interface  (which  does  not
    	      affect  DNS). The supplied string must be an interface name (not
    	      an address).
    
    	      This option requires that libcurl  was  built  with  a  resolver
    	      backend  that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
    	      only such one. (Added in 7.33.0)
    
           --dns-ipv4-addr 
    	      Tell curl to bind to  when making IPv4 DNS requests,
    	      so  that the DNS requests originate from this address. The argu‐
    	      ment should be a single IPv4 address.
    
    	      This option requires that libcurl  was  built  with  a  resolver
    	      backend  that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
    	      only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)
    
           --dns-ipv6-addr 
    	      Tell curl to bind to  when making IPv6 DNS requests,
    	      so  that the DNS requests originate from this address. The argu‐
    	      ment should be a single IPv6 address.
    
    	      This option requires that libcurl  was  built  with  a  resolver
    	      backend  that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is the
    	      only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)
    
           --dns-servers 
    	      Set the list of DNS servers to be used  instead  of  the	system
    	      default.	The list of IP addresses should be separated with com‐
    	      mas. Port numbers may also optionally be given as :
    	      after each IP address.
    
    	      This  option  requires  that  libcurl  was built with a resolver
    	      backend that supports this operation. The c-ares backend is  the
    	      only such one.  (Added in 7.33.0)
    
           -e, --referer 
    	      (HTTP) Sends the "Referrer Page" information to the HTTP server.
    	      This can also be set with the -H, --header flag of course.  When
    	      used with -L, --location you can append ";auto" to the --referer
    	      URL to make curl automatically set the previous URL when it fol‐
    	      lows  a  Location: header. The ";auto" string can be used alone,
    	      even if you don't set an initial --referer.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           -E, --cert 
    	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified  client  certificate  file
    	      when getting a file with HTTPS, FTPS or another SSL-based proto‐
    	      col. The certificate must be in PKCS#12 format if  using	Secure
    	      Transport,  or  PEM  format  if  using any other engine.	If the
    	      optional password isn't specified, it will be queried for on the
    	      terminal.  Note  that  this  option assumes a "certificate" file
    	      that is the private key and the client certificate concatenated!
    	      See --cert and --key to specify them independently.
    
    	      If  curl	is  built against the NSS SSL library then this option
    	      can tell curl the nickname of the certificate to use within  the
    	      NSS  database defined by the environment variable SSL_DIR (or by
    	      default /etc/pki/nssdb). If the NSS  PEM	PKCS#11  module  (lib‐
    	      nsspem.so)  is  available  then  PEM files may be loaded. If you
    	      want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
    	      with  "./"  prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
    	      If the nickname contains ":", it needs to be preceded by "\"  so
    	      that  it	is not recognized as password delimiter.  If the nick‐
    	      name contains "\", it needs to be escaped as "\\" so that it  is
    	      not recognized as an escape character.
    
    	      (iOS  and  Mac OS X only) If curl is built against Secure Trans‐
    	      port, then the certificate string can either be the  name  of  a
    	      certificate/private  key	in the system or user keychain, or the
    	      path to a PKCS#12-encoded certificate and private  key.  If  you
    	      want to use a file from the current directory, please precede it
    	      with "./" prefix, in order to avoid confusion with a nickname.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --engine 
    	      Select the OpenSSL crypto engine to use for  cipher  operations.
    	      Use  --engine  list  to  print  a  list  of build-time supported
    	      engines. Note that not all (or  none)  of  the  engines  may  be
    	      available at run-time.
    
           --environment
    	      (RISC  OS ONLY) Sets a range of environment variables, using the
    	      names the -w option supports, to allow easier extraction of use‐
    	      ful information after having run curl.
    
           --egd-file 
    	      (SSL)  Specify  the  path  name  to the Entropy Gathering Daemon
    	      socket. The socket is used to seed the  random  engine  for  SSL
    	      connections. See also the --random-file option.
    
           --expect100-timeout 
    	      (HTTP) Maximum time in seconds that you allow curl to wait for a
    	      100-continue response when curl emits an	Expects:  100-continue
    	      header  in  its  request.  By default curl will wait one second.
    	      This option accepts decimal values! When curl stops waiting,  it
    	      will continue as if the response has been received.
    
    	      (Added in 7.47.0)
    
           --cert-type 
    	      (SSL)  Tells curl what certificate type the provided certificate
    	      is in. PEM, DER and ENG are recognized types.  If not specified,
    	      PEM is assumed.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --cacert 
    	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate file to verify
    	      the peer. The file may contain  multiple	CA  certificates.  The
    	      certificate(s)  must be in PEM format. Normally curl is built to
    	      use a default file for this, so this option is typically used to
    	      alter that default file.
    
    	      curl  recognizes the environment variable named 'CURL_CA_BUNDLE'
    	      if it is set, and uses the given path as a path  to  a  CA  cert
    	      bundle. This option overrides that variable.
    
    	      The  windows  version  of  curl will automatically look for a CA
    	      certs file named ´curl-ca-bundle.crt´, either in the same direc‐
    	      tory as curl.exe, or in the Current Working Directory, or in any
    	      folder along your PATH.
    
    	      If curl is built against	the  NSS  SSL  library,  the  NSS  PEM
    	      PKCS#11  module  (libnsspem.so)  needs  to be available for this
    	      option to work properly.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --capath 
    	      (SSL) Tells curl to use the specified certificate  directory  to
    	      verify  the  peer.  Multiple paths can be provided by separating
    	      them with ":" (e.g.  "path1:path2:path3"). The certificates must
    	      be  in  PEM  format,  and  if curl is built against OpenSSL, the
    	      directory must have been processed using	the  c_rehash  utility
    	      supplied	with OpenSSL. Using --capath can allow OpenSSL-powered
    	      curl to make SSL-connections much more  efficiently  than  using
    	      --cacert if the --cacert file contains many CA certificates.
    
    	      If this option is set, the default capath value will be ignored,
    	      and if it is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --pinnedpubkey 
    	      (SSL) Tells curl to  use	the  specified	public	key  file  (or
    	      hashes)  to  verify the peer. This can be a path to a file which
    	      contains a single public key in PEM or DER format, or any number
    	      of base64 encoded sha256 hashes preceded by ´sha256//´ and sepa‐
    	      rated by ´;´
    
    	      When negotiating a TLS or SSL connection,  the  server  sends  a
    	      certificate  indicating  its identity. A public key is extracted
    	      from this certificate and if it does not exactly match the  pub‐
    	      lic  key provided to this option, curl will abort the connection
    	      before sending or receiving any data.
    
    	      Added in 7.39.0 for OpenSSL, GnuTLS and GSKit. Added  in	7.43.0
    	      for  NSS	and wolfSSL/CyaSSL. sha256 support added in 7.44.0 for
    	      OpenSSL, GnuTLS, NSS and wolfSSL/CyaSSL. Other SSL backends  not
    	      supported.
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --cert-status
    	      (SSL)  Tells curl to verify the status of the server certificate
    	      by using the Certificate Status Request (aka. OCSP stapling) TLS
    	      extension.
    
    	      If  this option is enabled and the server sends an invalid (e.g.
    	      expired) response, if the response suggests that the server cer‐
    	      tificate	has  been  revoked, or no response at all is received,
    	      the verification fails.
    
    	      This is currently only implemented in the  OpenSSL,  GnuTLS  and
    	      NSS backends.  (Added in 7.41.0)
    
           --false-start
    
    	      (SSL)  Tells  curl  to use false start during the TLS handshake.
    	      False start is a mode where a  TLS  client  will	start  sending
    	      application data before verifying the server's Finished message,
    	      thus saving a round trip when performing a full handshake.
    
    	      This is currently only implemented in the NSS and Secure	Trans‐
    	      port  (on  iOS  7.0  or  later, or OS X 10.9 or later) backends.
    	      (Added in 7.42.0)
    
           -f, --fail
    	      (HTTP) Fail silently (no output at all) on server  errors.  This
    	      is  mostly done to better enable scripts etc to better deal with
    	      failed attempts. In normal cases when an HTTP  server  fails  to
    	      deliver  a  document,  it  returns  an  HTML document stating so
    	      (which often also describes why and more). This flag  will  pre‐
    	      vent curl from outputting that and return error 22.
    
    	      This  method is not fail-safe and there are occasions where non-
    	      successful response codes will  slip  through,  especially  when
    	      authentication is involved (response codes 401 and 407).
    
           -F, --form 
    	      (HTTP)  This  lets curl emulate a filled-in form in which a user
    	      has pressed the submit button. This causes  curl	to  POST  data
    	      using  the  Content-Type	multipart/form-data  according	to RFC
    	      2388. This enables uploading of binary files etc. To  force  the
    	      'content'  part  to  be  a  file, prefix the file name with an @
    	      sign. To just get the content part from a file, prefix the  file
    	      name  with  the symbol <. The difference between @ and < is then
    	      that @ makes a file get attached in the post as a  file  upload,
    	      while  the  <  makes  a text field and just get the contents for
    	      that text field from a file.
    
    	      Example, to send your password file to the server, where	'pass‐
    	      word' is the name of the form-field to which /etc/passwd will be
    	      the input:
    
    	      curl -F password=@/etc/passwd www.mypasswords.com
    
    	      To read content from stdin instead of a file, use - as the file‐
    	      name.  This  goes  for both @ and < constructs. Unfortunately it
    	      does not support reading the file from a named pipe or  similar,
    	      as it needs the full size before the transfer starts.
    
    	      You  can	also  tell  curl  what	Content-Type  to  use by using
    	      'type=', in a manner similar to:
    
    	      curl -F "web=@index.html;type=text/html" url.com
    
    	      or
    
    	      curl -F "name=daniel;type=text/foo" url.com
    
    	      You can also explicitly change the name field of a  file	upload
    	      part by setting filename=, like this:
    
    	      curl -F "file=@localfile;filename=nameinpost" url.com
    
    	      If  filename/path contains ',' or ';', it must be quoted by dou‐
    	      ble-quotes like:
    
    	      curl -F "file=@\"localfile\";filename=\"nameinpost\"" url.com
    
    	      or
    
    	      curl -F 'file=@"localfile";filename="nameinpost"' url.com
    
    	      Note that if a filename/path is  quoted  by  double-quotes,  any
    	      double-quote or backslash within the filename must be escaped by
    	      backslash.
    
    	      See further examples and details in the MANUAL.
    
    	      This option can be used multiple times.
    
           --ftp-account [data]
    	      (FTP) When an FTP server asks for "account data" after user name
    	      and  password has been provided, this data is sent off using the
    	      ACCT command. (Added in 7.13.0)
    
    	      If this option is used several times, the last one will be used.
    
           --ftp-alternative-to-user 
    	      (FTP) If authenticating with the USER and PASS  commands	fails,
    	      send  this  command.   When  connecting  to  Tumbleweed's Secure
    	      Transport server over FTPS using	a  client  certificate,  using
    	      "SITE  AUTH"  will tell the server to retrieve the username from
    	      the certificate. (Added in 7.15.5)
    
           --ftp-create-dirs
    	      (FTP/SFTP) When an FTP or SFTP URL/operation uses  a  path  that
    	      doesn't  currently exist on the server, the standard behavior of
    	      curl is to fail. Using this option, curl will instead attempt to
    	      create missing directories.
    
           --ftp-method [method]
    	      (FTP)  Control what method curl should use to reach a file on an
    	      FTP(S) server. The method argument should be one of the  follow‐
    	      ing alternatives:
    
    	      multicwd
    		     curl  does  a  single CWD operation for each path part in
    		     the given URL. For deep hierarchies this means very  many
    		     commands.	This  is  how RFC 1738 says it should be done.
    		     This is the default but the slowest behavior.
    
    	      nocwd  curl does no CWD at all. curl will do  SIZE,  RETR,  STOR
    		     etc and give a full path to the server for all these com‐
    		     mands. This is the fastest behavior.
    
    	      singlecwd
    		     curl does one CWD with the full target directory and then
    		     operates  on  the	file  "normally" (like in the multicwd
    		     case). This is somewhat  more  standards  compliant  than
    		     'nocwd' but without the full penalty of 'multicwd'.
    
    	      (Added in 7.15.1)
    
           --ftp-pasv
    	      (FTP)  Use  passive mode for the data connection. Passive is the
    	      internal default behavior, but using this option can be used  to
    	      override a previous -P/-ftp-port option. (Added in 7.11.0)
    
    	      If  this	option	is  used  several times, only the first one is
    	      used. Undoing an enforced passive really isn't  doable  but  you
    	      must then instead enforce the correct -P, --ftp-port again.
    
    	      Passive mode means that curl will try the EPSV command first and
    	      then PASV, unless --disable-epsv is used.
    
           --ftp-skip-pasv-ip
    	      (FTP) Tell curl to not use the IP address the server suggests in
    	      its  response to curl's PASV command when curl connects the data
    	      connection. Instead curl will re-use  the  same  IP  address  it
    	      already uses for the control connection. (Added in 7.14.2)
    
    	      This  option has no effect if PORT, EPRT or EPSV is used instead
    	      of PASV.
    
           --ftp-pret
    	      (FTP) Tell curl to send a PRET command before PASV  (and	EPSV).
    	      Certain  FTP  servers,  mainly drftpd, require this non-standard
    	      command for directory listings as well as up  and  downloads  in
    	      PASV mode.  (Added in 7.20.x)
    
           --ftp-ssl-ccc
    	      (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel) Shuts down the SSL/TLS
    	      layer after authenticating. The rest of the control channel com‐
    	      munication  will be unencrypted. This allows NAT routers to fol‐
    	      low the FTP transaction. The default mode is passive. See --ftp-
    	      ssl-ccc-mode for other modes.  (Added in 7.16.1)
    
           --ftp-ssl-ccc-mode [active/passive]
    	      (FTP)  Use  CCC  (Clear  Command Channel) Sets the CCC mode. The
    	      passive mode will not initiate the shutdown,  but  instead  wait
    	      for the server to do it, and will not reply to the shutdown from
    	      the server. The active mode initiates the shutdown and waits for
    	      a reply from the server.	(Added in 7.16.2)
    
           --ftp-ssl-control
    	      (FTP)  Require  SSL/TLS  for  the FTP login, clear for transfer.
    	      Allows secure authentication, but non-encrypted  data  transfers
    	      for  efficiency.	 Fails the transfer if the server doesn't sup‐
    	      port SSL/TLS.  (Added in 7.16.0) that can still be used but will
    	      be removed in a future version.
    
           --form-string 
    	      (HTTP)  Similar  to  --form except that the value string for the
    	      named parameter is used literally. Leading '@' and  '<'  charac‐
    	      ters, and the ';type=' string in the value have no special mean‐
    	      ing. Use this in preference to --form if there's any possibility
    	      that  the  string  value may accidentally trigger the '@' or '<'
    	      features of --form.
    
           -g, --globoff
    	      This option switches off the "URL globbing parser". When you set
    	      this  option, you can specify URLs that contain the letters {}[]
    	      without having them being interpreted by curl itself. Note  that
    	      these  letters are not normal legal URL contents but they should
    	      be encoded according to the URI standard.
    
           -G, --get
    	      When used, this option will make all  data  specified  with  -d,
    	      --data,  --data-binary or --data-urlencode to be used in an HTTP
    	      GET request instead of the POST request that otherwise would  be
    	      used. The data will be appended to the URL with a '?' separator.
    
    	      If  used	in  combination with -I, the POST data will instead be
    	      appended to the URL with a HEAD request.
    
    	      If this option is used several times,  only  the	first  one  is
    	      used.  This is because undoing a GET doesn't make sense, but you
    	      should then instead enforce the alternative method you prefer.
    
           -H, --header 
    (HTTP) Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP to a server. You may specify any number of extra headers. Note that if you should add a custom header that has the same name as one of the internal ones curl would use, your externally set header will be used instead of the internal one. This allows you to make even trickier stuff than curl would normally do. You should not replace internally set headers without knowing per‐ fectly well what you're doing. Remove an internal header by giv‐ ing a replacement without content on the right side of the colon, as in: -H "Host:". If you send the custom header with no- value then its header must be terminated with a semicolon, such as -H "X-Custom-Header;" to send "X-Custom-Header:". curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage returns, they will only mess things up for you. See also the -A, --user-agent and -e, --referer options. Starting in 7.37.0, you need --proxy-header to send custom head‐ ers intended for a proxy. Example: # curl -H "X-First-Name: Joe" http://192.168.0.1/ WARNING: headers set with this option will be set in all requests - even after redirects are followed, like when told with -L, --location. This can lead to the header being sent to other hosts than the original host, so sensitive headers should be used with caution combined with following redirects. This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove multiple headers. --hostpubmd5 (SCP/SFTP) Pass a string containing 32 hexadecimal digits. The string should be the 128 bit MD5 checksum of the remote host's public key, curl will refuse the connection with the host unless the md5sums match. (Added in 7.17.1) --ignore-content-length For HTTP, Ignore the Content-Length header. This is particularly useful for servers running Apache 1.x, which will report incor‐ rect Content-Length for files larger than 2 gigabytes. For FTP (since 7.46.0), skip the RETR command to figure out the size before downloading a file. -i, --include (HTTP) Include the HTTP-header in the output. The HTTP-header includes things like server-name, date of the document, HTTP- version and more... -I, --head (HTTP/FTP/FILE) Fetch the HTTP-header only! HTTP-servers feature the command HEAD which this uses to get nothing but the header of a document. When used on an FTP or FILE file, curl displays the file size and last modification time only. --interface Perform an operation using a specified interface. You can enter interface name, IP address or host name. An example could look like: curl --interface eth0:1 http://www.netscape.com/ If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -j, --junk-session-cookies (HTTP) When curl is told to read cookies from a given file, this option will make it discard all "session cookies". This will basically have the same effect as if a new session is started. Typical browsers always discard session cookies when they're closed down. -J, --remote-header-name (HTTP) This option tells the -O, --remote-name option to use the server-specified Content-Disposition filename instead of extracting a filename from the URL. There's no attempt to decode %-sequences (yet) in the provided file name, so this option may provide you with rather unexpected file names. -k, --insecure (SSL) This option explicitly allows curl to perform "insecure" SSL connections and transfers. All SSL connections are attempted to be made secure by using the CA certificate bundle installed by default. This makes all connections considered "insecure" fail unless -k, --insecure is used. See this online resource for further details: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html -K, --config Specify which config file to read curl arguments from. The con‐ fig file is a text file in which command line arguments can be written which then will be used as if they were written on the actual command line. Options and their parameters must be specified on the same con‐ fig file line, separated by whitespace, colon, or the equals sign. Long option names can optionally be given in the config file without the initial double dashes and if so, the colon or equals characters can be used as separators. If the option is specified with one or two dashes, there can be no colon or equals character between the option and its parameter. If the parameter is to contain whitespace, the parameter must be enclosed within quotes. Within double quotes, the following escape sequences are available: \\, \", \t, \n, \r and \v. A backslash preceding any other letter is ignored. If the first column of a config line is a '#' character, the rest of the line will be treated as a comment. Only write one option per physical line in the config file. Specify the filename to -K, --config as '-' to make curl read the file from stdin. Note that to be able to specify a URL in the config file, you need to specify it using the --url option, and not by simply writing the URL on its own line. So, it could look similar to this: url = "http://curl.haxx.se/docs/" When curl is invoked, it always (unless -q is used) checks for a default config file and uses it if found. The default config file is checked for in the following places in this order: 1) curl tries to find the "home dir": It first checks for the CURL_HOME and then the HOME environment variables. Failing that, it uses getpwuid() on Unix-like systems (which returns the home dir given the current user in your system). On Windows, it then checks for the APPDATA variable, or as a last resort the '%USER‐ PROFILE%\Application Data'. 2) On windows, if there is no _curlrc file in the home dir, it checks for one in the same dir the curl executable is placed. On Unix-like systems, it will simply try to load .curlrc from the determined home dir. # --- Example file --- # this is a comment url = "curl.haxx.se" output = "curlhere.html" user-agent = "superagent/1.0" # and fetch another URL too url = "curl.haxx.se/docs/manpage.html" -O referer = "http://nowhereatall.com/" # --- End of example file --- This option can be used multiple times to load multiple config files. --keepalive-time This option sets the time a connection needs to remain idle before sending keepalive probes and the time between individual keepalive probes. It is currently effective on operating systems offering the TCP_KEEPIDLE and TCP_KEEPINTVL socket options (meaning Linux, recent AIX, HP-UX and more). This option has no effect if --no-keepalive is used. (Added in 7.18.0) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. If unspecified, the option defaults to 60 seconds. --key (SSL/SSH) Private key file name. Allows you to provide your pri‐ vate key in this separate file. For SSH, if not specified, curl tries the following candidates in order: '~/.ssh/id_rsa', '~/.ssh/id_dsa', './id_rsa', './id_dsa'. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --key-type (SSL) Private key file type. Specify which type your --key pro‐ vided private key is. DER, PEM, and ENG are supported. If not specified, PEM is assumed. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --krb (FTP) Enable Kerberos authentication and use. The level must be entered and should be one of 'clear', 'safe', 'confidential', or 'private'. Should you use a level that is not one of these, 'private' will instead be used. This option requires a library built with kerberos4 support. This is not very common. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports it. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -l, --list-only (FTP) When listing an FTP directory, this switch forces a name- only view. This is especially useful if the user wants to machine-parse the contents of an FTP directory since the normal directory view doesn't use a standard look or format. When used like this, the option causes a NLST command to be sent to the server instead of LIST. Note: Some FTP servers list only files in their response to NLST; they do not include sub-directories and symbolic links. (POP3) When retrieving a specific email from POP3, this switch forces a LIST command to be performed instead of RETR. This is particularly useful if the user wants to see if a specific mes‐ sage id exists on the server and what size it is. Note: When combined with -X, --request , this option can be used to send an UIDL command instead, so the user may use the email's unique identifier rather than it's message id to make the request. (Added in 7.21.5) -L, --location (HTTP/HTTPS) If the server reports that the requested page has moved to a different location (indicated with a Location: header and a 3XX response code), this option will make curl redo the request on the new place. If used together with -i, --include or -I, --head, headers from all requested pages will be shown. When authentication is used, curl only sends its credentials to the initial host. If a redirect takes curl to a different host, it won't be able to intercept the user+password. See also --loca‐ tion-trusted on how to change this. You can limit the amount of redirects to follow by using the --max-redirs option. When curl follows a redirect and the request is not a plain GET (for example POST or PUT), it will do the following request with a GET if the HTTP response was 301, 302, or 303. If the response code was any other 3xx code, curl will re-send the following request using the same unmodified method. You can tell curl to not change the non-GET request method to GET after a 30x response by using the dedicated options for that: --post301, --post302 and -post303. --libcurl Append this option to any ordinary curl command line, and you will get a libcurl-using C source code written to the file that does the equivalent of what your command-line operation does! If this option is used several times, the last given file name will be used. (Added in 7.16.1) --limit-rate Specify the maximum transfer rate you want curl to use - for both downloads and uploads. This feature is useful if you have a limited pipe and you'd like your transfer not to use your entire bandwidth. To make it slower than it otherwise would be. The given speed is measured in bytes/second, unless a suffix is appended. Appending 'k' or 'K' will count the number as kilo‐ bytes, 'm' or M' makes it megabytes, while 'g' or 'G' makes it gigabytes. Examples: 200K, 3m and 1G. The given rate is the average speed counted during the entire transfer. It means that curl might use higher transfer speeds in short bursts, but over time it uses no more than the given rate. If you also use the -Y, --speed-limit option, that option will take precedence and might cripple the rate-limiting slightly, to help keeping the speed-limit logic working. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --local-port [-num] Set a preferred number or range of local port numbers to use for the connection(s). Note that port numbers by nature are a scarce resource that will be busy at times so setting this range to something too narrow might cause unnecessary connection setup failures. (Added in 7.15.2) --location-trusted (HTTP/HTTPS) Like -L, --location, but will allow sending the name + password to all hosts that the site may redirect to. This may or may not introduce a security breach if the site redirects you to a site to which you'll send your authentication info (which is plaintext in the case of HTTP Basic authentication). -m, --max-time Maximum time in seconds that you allow the whole operation to take. This is useful for preventing your batch jobs from hang‐ ing for hours due to slow networks or links going down. Since 7.32.0, this option accepts decimal values, but the actual time‐ out will decrease in accuracy as the specified timeout increases in decimal precision. See also the --connect-timeout option. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --login-options Specify the login options to use during server authentication. You can use the login options to specify protocol specific options that may be used during authentication. At present only IMAP, POP3 and SMTP support login options. For more information about the login options please see RFC 2384, RFC 5092 and IETF draft draft-earhart-url-smtp-00.txt (Added in 7.34.0). If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --mail-auth
    (SMTP) Specify a single address. This will be used to specify the authentication address (identity) of a submitted message that is being relayed to another server. (Added in 7.25.0) --mail-from
    (SMTP) Specify a single address that the given mail should get sent from. (Added in 7.20.0) --max-filesize Specify the maximum size (in bytes) of a file to download. If the file requested is larger than this value, the transfer will not start and curl will return with exit code 63. NOTE: The file size is not always known prior to download, and for such files this option has no effect even if the file trans‐ fer ends up being larger than this given limit. This concerns both FTP and HTTP transfers. --mail-rcpt
    (SMTP) Specify a single address, user name or mailing list name. When performing a mail transfer, the recipient should specify a valid email address to send the mail to. (Added in 7.20.0) When performing an address verification (VRFY command), the recipient should be specified as the user name or user name and domain (as per Section 3.5 of RFC5321). (Added in 7.34.0) When performing a mailing list expand (EXPN command), the recip‐ ient should be specified using the mailing list name, such as "Friends" or "London-Office". (Added in 7.34.0) --max-redirs Set maximum number of redirection-followings allowed. If -L, --location is used, this option can be used to prevent curl from following redirections "in absurdum". By default, the limit is set to 50 redirections. Set this option to -1 to make it limit‐ less. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --metalink This option can tell curl to parse and process a given URI as Metalink file (both version 3 and 4 (RFC 5854) are supported) and make use of the mirrors listed within for failover if there are errors (such as the file or server not being available). It will also verify the hash of the file after the download com‐ pletes. The Metalink file itself is downloaded and processed in memory and not stored in the local file system. Example to use a remote Metalink file: curl --metalink http://www.example.com/example.metalink To use a Metalink file in the local file system, use FILE proto‐ col (file://): curl --metalink file://example.metalink Please note that if FILE protocol is disabled, there is no way to use a local Metalink file at the time of this writing. Also note that if --metalink and --include are used together, --include will be ignored. This is because including headers in the response will break Metalink parser and if the headers are included in the file described in Metalink file, hash check will fail. (Added in 7.27.0, if built against the libmetalink library.) -n, --netrc Makes curl scan the .netrc (_netrc on Windows) file in the user's home directory for login name and password. This is typi‐ cally used for FTP on Unix. If used with HTTP, curl will enable user authentication. See netrc(5) ftp(1) for details on the file format. Curl will not complain if that file doesn't have the right permissions (it should not be either world- or group-read‐ able). The environment variable "HOME" is used to find the home directory. A quick and very simple example of how to setup a .netrc to allow curl to FTP to the machine host.domain.com with user name 'myself' and password 'secret' should look similar to: machine host.domain.com login myself password secret -N, --no-buffer Disables the buffering of the output stream. In normal work sit‐ uations, curl will use a standard buffered output stream that will have the effect that it will output the data in chunks, not necessarily exactly when the data arrives. Using this option will disable that buffering. Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --buffer to enforce the buffering. --netrc-file This option is similar to --netrc, except that you provide the path (absolute or relative) to the netrc file that Curl should use. You can only specify one netrc file per invocation. If several --netrc-file options are provided, only the last one will be used. (Added in 7.21.5) This option overrides any use of --netrc as they are mutually exclusive. It will also abide by --netrc-optional if specified. --netrc-optional Very similar to --netrc, but this option makes the .netrc usage optional and not mandatory as the --netrc option does. --negotiate (HTTP) Enables Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication. If you want to enable Negotiate (SPNEGO) for proxy authentica‐ tion, then use --proxy-negotiate. This option requires a library built with GSS-API or SSPI sup‐ port. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports GSS- API/SSPI and SPNEGO. When using this option, you must also provide a fake -u, --user option to activate the authentication code properly. Sending a '-u :' is enough as the user name and password from the -u option aren't actually used. If this option is used several times, only the first one is used. --no-keepalive Disables the use of keepalive messages on the TCP connection, as by default curl enables them. Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --keepalive to enforce keepalive. --no-sessionid (SSL) Disable curl's use of SSL session-ID caching. By default all transfers are done using the cache. Note that while nothing should ever get hurt by attempting to reuse SSL session-IDs, there seem to be broken SSL implementations in the wild that may require you to disable this in order for you to succeed. (Added in 7.16.0) Note that this is the negated option name documented. You can thus use --sessionid to enforce session-ID caching. --noproxy Comma-separated list of hosts which do not use a proxy, if one is specified. The only wildcard is a single * character, which matches all hosts, and effectively disables the proxy. Each name in this list is matched as either a domain which contains the hostname, or the hostname itself. For example, local.com would match local.com, local.com:80, and www.local.com, but not www.notlocal.com. (Added in 7.19.4). --ntlm (HTTP) Enables NTLM authentication. The NTLM authentication method was designed by Microsoft and is used by IIS web servers. It is a proprietary protocol, reverse-engineered by clever peo‐ ple and implemented in curl based on their efforts. This kind of behavior should not be endorsed, you should encourage everyone who uses NTLM to switch to a public and documented authentica‐ tion method instead, such as Digest. If you want to enable NTLM for your proxy authentication, then use --proxy-ntlm. This option requires a library built with SSL support. Use -V, --version to see if your curl supports NTLM. If this option is used several times, only the first one is used. -o, --output Write output to instead of stdout. If you are using {} or [] to fetch multiple documents, you can use '#' followed by a number in the specifier. That variable will be replaced with the current string for the URL being fetched. Like in: curl http://{one,two}.site.com -o "file_#1.txt" or use several variables like: curl http://{site,host}.host[1-5].com -o "#1_#2" You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have. See also the --create-dirs option to create the local directo‐ ries dynamically. Specifying the output as '-' (a single dash) will force the output to be done to stdout. -O, --remote-name Write output to a local file named like the remote file we get. (Only the file part of the remote file is used, the path is cut off.) The remote file name to use for saving is extracted from the given URL, nothing else. Consequentially, the file will be saved in the current working directory. If you want the file saved in a different directory, make sure you change current working directory before you invoke curl with the -O, --remote-name flag! There is no URL decoding done on the file name. If it has %20 or other URL encoded parts of the name, they will end up as-is as file name. You may use this option as many times as the number of URLs you have. --oauth2-bearer (IMAP, POP3, SMTP) Specify the Bearer Token for OAUTH 2.0 server authentication. The Bearer Token is used in conjunction with the user name which can be specified as part of the --url or -u, --user options. The Bearer Token and user name are formatted according to RFC 6750. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --proxy-header
    (HTTP) Extra header to include in the request when sending HTTP to a proxy. You may specify any number of extra headers. This is the equivalent option to -H, --header but is for proxy communi‐ cation only like in CONNECT requests when you want a separate header sent to the proxy to what is sent to the actual remote host. curl will make sure that each header you add/replace is sent with the proper end-of-line marker, you should thus not add that as a part of the header content: do not add newlines or carriage returns, they will only mess things up for you. Headers specified with this option will not be included in requests that curl knows will not be sent to a proxy. This option can be used multiple times to add/replace/remove multiple headers. (Added in 7.37.0) -p, --proxytunnel When an HTTP proxy is used (-x, --proxy), this option will cause non-HTTP protocols to attempt to tunnel through the proxy instead of merely using it to do HTTP-like operations. The tun‐ nel approach is made with the HTTP proxy CONNECT request and requires that the proxy allows direct connect to the remote port number curl wants to tunnel through to. -P, --ftp-port
    (FTP) Reverses the default initiator/listener roles when con‐ necting with FTP. This switch makes curl use active mode. In practice, curl then tells the server to connect back to the client's specified address and port, while passive mode asks the server to setup an IP address and port for it to connect to.
    should be one of: interface i.e "eth0" to specify which interface's IP address you want to use (Unix only) IP address i.e "192.168.10.1" to specify the exact IP address host name i.e "my.host.domain" to specify the machine - make curl pick the same IP address that is already used for the control connection If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. Disable the use of PORT with --ftp-pasv. Disable the attempt to use the EPRT command instead of PORT by using --disable-eprt. EPRT is really PORT++. Starting in 7.19.5, you can append ":[start]-[end]" to the right of the address, to tell curl what TCP port range to use. That means you specify a port range, from a lower to a higher number. A single number works as well, but do note that it increases the risk of failure since the port may not be available. --pass (SSL/SSH) Passphrase for the private key If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --path-as-is Tell curl to not handle sequences of /../ or /./ in the given URL path. Normally curl will squash or merge them according to standards but with this option set you tell it not to do that. (Added in 7.42.0) --post301 (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7230/6.4.2 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 301 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redi‐ rection. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --loca‐ tion (Added in 7.17.1) --post302 (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7230/6.4.3 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 302 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redi‐ rection. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --loca‐ tion (Added in 7.19.1) --post303 (HTTP) Tells curl to respect RFC 7230/6.4.4 and not convert POST requests into GET requests when following a 303 redirection. The non-RFC behaviour is ubiquitous in web browsers, so curl does the conversion by default to maintain consistency. However, a server may require a POST to remain a POST after such a redi‐ rection. This option is meaningful only when using -L, --loca‐ tion (Added in 7.26.0) --proto Tells curl to use the listed protocols for its initial retrieval. Protocols are evaluated left to right, are comma sep‐ arated, and are each a protocol name or 'all', optionally pre‐ fixed by zero or more modifiers. Available modifiers are: + Permit this protocol in addition to protocols already permit‐ ted (this is the default if no modifier is used). - Deny this protocol, removing it from the list of protocols already permitted. = Permit only this protocol (ignoring the list already permit‐ ted), though subject to later modification by subsequent entries in the comma separated list. For example: --proto -ftps uses the default protocols, but disables ftps --proto -all,https,+http only enables http and https --proto =http,https also only enables http and https Unknown protocols produce a warning. This allows scripts to safely rely on being able to disable potentially dangerous pro‐ tocols, without relying upon support for that protocol being built into curl to avoid an error. This option can be used multiple times, in which case the effect is the same as concatenating the protocols into one instance of the option. (Added in 7.20.2) --proto-default Tells curl to use protocol for any URL missing a scheme name. Example: --proto-default https ftp.mozilla.org https://ftp.mozilla.org An unknown or unsupported protocol causes error CURLE_UNSUPPORTED_PRO‐ TOCOL. This option does not change the default proxy protocol (http). Without this option curl would make a guess based on the host, see --url for details. (Added in 7.45.0) --proto-redir Tells curl to use the listed protocols on redirect. See --proto for how protocols are represented. Example: --proto-redir -all,http,https Allow only HTTP and HTTPS on redirect. By default curl will allow all protocols on redirect except several disabled for security reasons: Since 7.19.4 FILE and SCP are disabled, and since 7.40.0 SMB and SMBS are also disabled. Specifying all or +all enables all protocols on redirect, including those disabled for secu‐ rity. (Added in 7.20.2) --proxy-anyauth Tells curl to pick a suitable authentication method when commu‐ nicating with the given proxy. This might cause an extra request/response round-trip. (Added in 7.13.2) --proxy-basic Tells curl to use HTTP Basic authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --basic for enabling HTTP Basic with a remote host. Basic is the default authentication method curl uses with proxies. --proxy-digest Tells curl to use HTTP Digest authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --digest for enabling HTTP Digest with a remote host. --proxy-negotiate Tells curl to use HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --negotiate for enabling HTTP Negotiate (SPNEGO) with a remote host. (Added in 7.17.1) --proxy-ntlm Tells curl to use HTTP NTLM authentication when communicating with the given proxy. Use --ntlm for enabling NTLM with a remote host. --proxy-service-name This option allows you to change the service name for proxy negotiation. Examples: --proxy-negotiate proxy-name --proxy-service-name sockd would use sockd/proxy-name. (Added in 7.43.0). --proxy1.0 Use the specified HTTP 1.0 proxy. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. The only difference between this and the HTTP proxy option (-x, --proxy), is that attempts to use CONNECT through the proxy will specify an HTTP 1.0 protocol instead of the default HTTP 1.1. --pubkey (SSH) Public key file name. Allows you to provide your public key in this separate file. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (As of 7.39.0, curl attempts to automatically extract the public key from the private key file, so passing this option is gener‐ ally not required. Note that this public key extraction requires libcurl to be linked against a copy of libssh2 1.2.8 or higher that is itself linked against OpenSSL.) -q If used as the first parameter on the command line, the curlrc config file will not be read and used. See the -K, --config for details on the default config file search path. -Q, --quote (FTP/SFTP) Send an arbitrary command to the remote FTP or SFTP server. Quote commands are sent BEFORE the transfer takes place (just after the initial PWD command in an FTP transfer, to be exact). To make commands take place after a successful transfer, prefix them with a dash '-'. To make commands be sent after curl has changed the working directory, just before the transfer command(s), prefix the command with a '+' (this is only sup‐ ported for FTP). You may specify any number of commands. If the server returns failure for one of the commands, the entire oper‐ ation will be aborted. You must send syntactically correct FTP commands as RFC 959 defines to FTP servers, or one of the com‐ mands listed below to SFTP servers. This option can be used multiple times. When speaking to an FTP server, prefix the com‐ mand with an asterisk (*) to make curl continue even if the com‐ mand fails as by default curl will stop at first failure. SFTP is a binary protocol. Unlike for FTP, curl interprets SFTP quote commands itself before sending them to the server. File names may be quoted shell-style to embed spaces or special char‐ acters. Following is the list of all supported SFTP quote com‐ mands: chgrp group file The chgrp command sets the group ID of the file named by the file operand to the group ID specified by the group operand. The group operand is a decimal integer group ID. chmod mode file The chmod command modifies the file mode bits of the specified file. The mode operand is an octal integer mode number. chown user file The chown command sets the owner of the file named by the file operand to the user ID specified by the user oper‐ and. The user operand is a decimal integer user ID. ln source_file target_file The ln and symlink commands create a symbolic link at the target_file location pointing to the source_file loca‐ tion. mkdir directory_name The mkdir command creates the directory named by the directory_name operand. pwd The pwd command returns the absolute pathname of the cur‐ rent working directory. rename source target The rename command renames the file or directory named by the source operand to the destination path named by the target operand. rm file The rm command removes the file specified by the file op‐ erand. rmdir directory The rmdir command removes the directory entry specified by the directory operand, provided it is empty. symlink source_file target_file See ln. -r, --range (HTTP/FTP/SFTP/FILE) Retrieve a byte range (i.e a partial docu‐ ment) from a HTTP/1.1, FTP or SFTP server or a local FILE. Ranges can be specified in a number of ways. 0-499 specifies the first 500 bytes 500-999 specifies the second 500 bytes -500 specifies the last 500 bytes 9500- specifies the bytes from offset 9500 and forward 0-0,-1 specifies the first and last byte only(*)(HTTP) 100-199,500-599 specifies two separate 100-byte ranges(*) (HTTP) (*) = NOTE that this will cause the server to reply with a mul‐ tipart response! Only digit characters (0-9) are valid in the 'start' and 'stop' fields of the 'start-stop' range syntax. If a non-digit charac‐ ter is given in the range, the server's response will be unspec‐ ified, depending on the server's configuration. You should also be aware that many HTTP/1.1 servers do not have this feature enabled, so that when you attempt to get a range, you'll instead get the whole document. FTP and SFTP range downloads only support the simple 'start- stop' syntax (optionally with one of the numbers omitted). FTP use depends on the extended FTP command SIZE. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -R, --remote-time When used, this will make curl attempt to figure out the time‐ stamp of the remote file, and if that is available make the local file get that same timestamp. --random-file (SSL) Specify the path name to file containing what will be con‐ sidered as random data. The data is used to seed the random engine for SSL connections. See also the --egd-file option. --raw (HTTP) When used, it disables all internal HTTP decoding of con‐ tent or transfer encodings and instead makes them passed on unaltered, raw. (Added in 7.16.2) --remote-name-all This option changes the default action for all given URLs to be dealt with as if -O, --remote-name were used for each one. So if you want to disable that for a specific URL after --remote-name- all has been used, you must use "-o -" or --no-remote-name. (Added in 7.19.0) --resolve Provide a custom address for a specific host and port pair. Using this, you can make the curl requests(s) use a specified address and prevent the otherwise normally resolved address to be used. Consider it a sort of /etc/hosts alternative provided on the command line. The port number should be the number used for the specific protocol the host will be used for. It means you need several entries if you want to provide address for the same host but different ports. This option can be used many times to add many host names to resolve. (Added in 7.21.3) --retry If a transient error is returned when curl tries to perform a transfer, it will retry this number of times before giving up. Setting the number to 0 makes curl do no retries (which is the default). Transient error means either: a timeout, an FTP 4xx response code or an HTTP 5xx response code. When curl is about to retry a transfer, it will first wait one second and then for all forthcoming retries it will double the waiting time until it reaches 10 minutes which then will be the delay between the rest of the retries. By using --retry-delay you disable this exponential backoff algorithm. See also --retry-max-time to limit the total time allowed for retries. (Added in 7.12.3) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --retry-delay Make curl sleep this amount of time before each retry when a transfer has failed with a transient error (it changes the default backoff time algorithm between retries). This option is only interesting if --retry is also used. Setting this delay to zero will make curl use the default backoff time. (Added in 7.12.3) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --retry-max-time The retry timer is reset before the first transfer attempt. Retries will be done as usual (see --retry) as long as the timer hasn't reached this given limit. Notice that if the timer hasn't reached the limit, the request will be made and while perform‐ ing, it may take longer than this given time period. To limit a single request´s maximum time, use -m, --max-time. Set this option to zero to not timeout retries. (Added in 7.12.3) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -s, --silent Silent or quiet mode. Don't show progress meter or error mes‐ sages. Makes Curl mute. It will still output the data you ask for, potentially even to the terminal/stdout unless you redirect it. --sasl-ir Enable initial response in SASL authentication. (Added in 7.31.0) --service-name This option allows you to change the service name for SPNEGO. Examples: --negotiate --service-name sockd would use sockd/server-name. (Added in 7.43.0). -S, --show-error When used with -s it makes curl show an error message if it fails. --ssl (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Try to use SSL/TLS for the connection. Reverts to a non-secure connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS. See also --ftp-ssl-control and --ssl-reqd for differ‐ ent levels of encryption required. (Added in 7.20.0) This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl (Added in 7.11.0). That option name can still be used but will be removed in a future version. --ssl-reqd (FTP, POP3, IMAP, SMTP) Require SSL/TLS for the connection. Terminates the connection if the server doesn't support SSL/TLS. (Added in 7.20.0) This option was formerly known as --ftp-ssl-reqd (added in 7.15.5). That option name can still be used but will be removed in a future version. --ssl-allow-beast (SSL) This option tells curl to not work around a security flaw in the SSL3 and TLS1.0 protocols known as BEAST. If this option isn't used, the SSL layer may use workarounds known to cause interoperability problems with some older SSL implementations. WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this flag you ask for exactly that. (Added in 7.25.0) --ssl-no-revoke (WinSSL) This option tells curl to disable certificate revoca‐ tion checks. WARNING: this option loosens the SSL security, and by using this flag you ask for exactly that. (Added in 7.44.0) --socks4 Use the specified SOCKS4 proxy. If the port number is not speci‐ fied, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.15.2) This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4:// protocol prefix. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --socks4a Use the specified SOCKS4a proxy. If the port number is not spec‐ ified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0) This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks4a proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks4a:// protocol pre‐ fix. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --socks5-hostname Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy (and let the proxy resolve the host name). If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. (Added in 7.18.0) This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 hostname proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5h:// proto‐ col prefix. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This option was previously wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.) --socks5 Use the specified SOCKS5 proxy - but resolve the host name locally. If the port number is not specified, it is assumed at port 1080. This option overrides any previous use of -x, --proxy, as they are mutually exclusive. Since 7.21.7, this option is superfluous since you can specify a socks5 proxy with -x, --proxy using a socks5:// protocol prefix. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (This option was previously wrongly documented and used as --socks without the number appended.) This option (as well as --socks4) does not work with IPV6, FTPS or LDAP. --socks5-gssapi-service The default service name for a socks server is rcmd/server-fqdn. This option allows you to change it. Examples: --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi-service sockd would use sockd/proxy-name --socks5 proxy-name --socks5-gssapi- service sockd/real-name would use sockd/real-name for cases where the proxy-name does not match the principal name. (Added in 7.19.4). --socks5-gssapi-nec As part of the GSS-API negotiation a protection mode is negoti‐ ated. RFC 1961 says in section 4.3/4.4 it should be protected, but the NEC reference implementation does not. The option --socks5-gssapi-nec allows the unprotected exchange of the pro‐ tection mode negotiation. (Added in 7.19.4). --stderr Redirect all writes to stderr to the specified file instead. If the file name is a plain '-', it is instead written to stdout. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -t, --telnet-option Pass options to the telnet protocol. Supported options are: TTYPE= Sets the terminal type. XDISPLOC= Sets the X display location. NEW_ENV= Sets an environment variable. -T, --upload-file This transfers the specified local file to the remote URL. If there is no file part in the specified URL, Curl will append the local file name. NOTE that you must use a trailing / on the last directory to really prove to Curl that there is no file name or curl will think that your last directory name is the remote file name to use. That will most likely cause the upload operation to fail. If this is used on an HTTP(S) server, the PUT command will be used. Use the file name "-" (a single dash) to use stdin instead of a given file. Alternately, the file name "." (a single period) may be specified instead of "-" to use stdin in non-blocking mode to allow reading server output while stdin is being uploaded. You can specify one -T for each URL on the command line. Each -T + URL pair specifies what to upload and to where. curl also sup‐ ports "globbing" of the -T argument, meaning that you can upload multiple files to a single URL by using the same URL globbing style supported in the URL, like this: curl -T "{file1,file2}" http://www.uploadtothissite.com or even curl -T "img[1-1000].png" ftp://ftp.picturemania.com/upload/ --tcp-nodelay Turn on the TCP_NODELAY option. See the curl_easy_setopt(3) man page for details about this option. (Added in 7.11.2) --tftp-blksize (TFTP) Set TFTP BLKSIZE option (must be >512). This is the block size that curl will try to use when transferring data to or from a TFTP server. By default 512 bytes will be used. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. (Added in 7.20.0) --tlsauthtype Set TLS authentication type. Currently, the only supported option is "SRP", for TLS-SRP (RFC 5054). If --tlsuser and --tlspassword are specified but --tlsauthtype is not, then this option defaults to "SRP". (Added in 7.21.4) --tlspassword Set password for use with the TLS authentication method speci‐ fied with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlsuser also be set. (Added in 7.21.4) --tlsuser Set username for use with the TLS authentication method speci‐ fied with --tlsauthtype. Requires that --tlspassword also be set. (Added in 7.21.4) --tlsv1.0 (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.0 when negotiating with a remote TLS server. (Added in 7.34.0) --tlsv1.1 (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.1 when negotiating with a remote TLS server. (Added in 7.34.0) --tlsv1.2 (SSL) Forces curl to use TLS version 1.2 when negotiating with a remote TLS server. (Added in 7.34.0) --tr-encoding (HTTP) Request a compressed Transfer-Encoding response using one of the algorithms curl supports, and uncompress the data while receiving it. (Added in 7.21.6) --trace Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout. This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace- ascii. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --trace-ascii Enables a full trace dump of all incoming and outgoing data, including descriptive information, to the given output file. Use "-" as filename to have the output sent to stdout. This is very similar to --trace, but leaves out the hex part and only shows the ASCII part of the dump. It makes smaller output that might be easier to read for untrained humans. This option overrides previous uses of -v, --verbose or --trace. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --trace-time Prepends a time stamp to each trace or verbose line that curl displays. (Added in 7.14.0) --unix-socket (HTTP) Connect through this Unix domain socket, instead of using the network. (Added in 7.40.0) -u, --user Specify the user name and password to use for server authentica‐ tion. Overrides -n, --netrc and --netrc-optional. If you simply specify the user name, curl will prompt for a password. The user name and passwords are split up on the first colon, which makes it impossible to use a colon in the user name with this option. The password can, still. When using Kerberos V5 with a Windows based server you should include the Windows domain name in the user name, in order for the server to successfully obtain a Kerberos Ticket. If you don't then the initial authentication handshake may fail. When using NTLM, the user name can be specified simply as the user name, without the domain, if there is a single domain and forest in your setup for example. To specify the domain name use either Down-Level Logon Name or UPN (User Principal Name) formats. For example, EXAMPLE\user and user@example.com respectively. If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and perform Ker‐ beros V5, Negotiate, NTLM or Digest authentication then you can tell curl to select the user name and password from your envi‐ ronment by specifying a single colon with this option: "-u :". If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -U, --proxy-user Specify the user name and password to use for proxy authentica‐ tion. If you use a Windows SSPI-enabled curl binary and do either Negotiate or NTLM authentication then you can tell curl to select the user name and password from your environment by spec‐ ifying a single colon with this option: "-U :". If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --url Specify a URL to fetch. This option is mostly handy when you want to specify URL(s) in a config file. If the given URL is missing a scheme name (such as "http://" or "ftp://" etc) then curl will make a guess based on the host. If the outermost sub-domain name matches DICT, FTP, IMAP, LDAP, POP3 or SMTP then that protocol will be used, otherwise HTTP will be used. Since 7.45.0 guessing can be disabled by setting a default protocol, see --proto-default for details. This option may be used any number of times. To control where this URL is written, use the -o, --output or the -O, --remote- name options. -v, --verbose Be more verbose/talkative during the operation. Useful for debugging and seeing what's going on "under the hood". A line starting with '>' means "header data" sent by curl, '<' means "header data" received by curl that is hidden in normal cases, and a line starting with '*' means additional info provided by curl. Note that if you only want HTTP headers in the output, -i, --include might be the option you're looking for. If you think this option still doesn't give you enough details, consider using --trace or --trace-ascii instead. This option overrides previous uses of --trace-ascii or --trace. Use -s, --silent to make curl quiet. -w, --write-out Make curl display information on stdout after a completed trans‐ fer. The format is a string that may contain plain text mixed with any number of variables. The format can be specified as a literal "string", or you can have curl read the format from a file with "@filename" and to tell curl to read the format from stdin you write "@-". The variables present in the output format will be substituted by the value or text that curl thinks fit, as described below. All variables are specified as %{variable_name} and to output a normal % you just write them as %%. You can output a newline by using \n, a carriage return with \r and a tab space with \t. NOTE: The %-symbol is a special symbol in the win32-environment, where all occurrences of % must be doubled when using this option. The variables available are: content_type The Content-Type of the requested document, if there was any. filename_effective The ultimate filename that curl writes out to. This is only meaningful if curl is told to write to a file with the --remote-name or --output option. It's most useful in combination with the --remote-header-name option. (Added in 7.25.1) ftp_entry_path The initial path curl ended up in when logging on to the remote FTP server. (Added in 7.15.4) http_code The numerical response code that was found in the last retrieved HTTP(S) or FTP(s) transfer. In 7.18.2 the alias response_code was added to show the same info. http_connect The numerical code that was found in the last response (from a proxy) to a curl CONNECT request. (Added in 7.12.4) local_ip The IP address of the local end of the most recently done connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0) local_port The local port number of the most recently done connection (Added in 7.29.0) num_connects Number of new connects made in the recent trans‐ fer. (Added in 7.12.3) num_redirects Number of redirects that were followed in the request. (Added in 7.12.3) redirect_url When an HTTP request was made without -L to fol‐ low redirects, this variable will show the actual URL a redirect would take you to. (Added in 7.18.2) remote_ip The remote IP address of the most recently done connection - can be either IPv4 or IPv6 (Added in 7.29.0) remote_port The remote port number of the most recently done connection (Added in 7.29.0) size_download The total amount of bytes that were downloaded. size_header The total amount of bytes of the downloaded head‐ ers. size_request The total amount of bytes that were sent in the HTTP request. size_upload The total amount of bytes that were uploaded. speed_download The average download speed that curl measured for the complete download. Bytes per second. speed_upload The average upload speed that curl measured for the complete upload. Bytes per second. ssl_verify_result The result of the SSL peer certificate verifica‐ tion that was requested. 0 means the verification was successful. (Added in 7.19.0) time_appconnect The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the SSL/SSH/etc connect/handshake to the remote host was completed. (Added in 7.19.0) time_connect The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the TCP connect to the remote host (or proxy) was completed. time_namelookup The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the name resolving was completed. time_pretransfer The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the file transfer was just about to begin. This includes all pre-transfer commands and nego‐ tiations that are specific to the particular pro‐ tocol(s) involved. time_redirect The time, in seconds, it took for all redirection steps include name lookup, connect, pretransfer and transfer before the final transaction was started. time_redirect shows the complete execu‐ tion time for multiple redirections. (Added in 7.12.3) time_starttransfer The time, in seconds, it took from the start until the first byte was just about to be trans‐ ferred. This includes time_pretransfer and also the time the server needed to calculate the result. time_total The total time, in seconds, that the full opera‐ tion lasted. The time will be displayed with mil‐ lisecond resolution. url_effective The URL that was fetched last. This is most mean‐ ingful if you've told curl to follow location: headers. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -x, --proxy <[protocol://][user:password@]proxyhost[:port]> Use the specified proxy. The proxy string can be specified with a protocol:// prefix to specify alternative proxy protocols. Use socks4://, socks4a://, socks5:// or socks5h:// to request the specific SOCKS version to be used. No protocol specified, http:// and all others will be treated as HTTP proxies. (The protocol support was added in curl 7.21.7) If the port number is not specified in the proxy string, it is assumed to be 1080. This option overrides existing environment variables that set the proxy to use. If there's an environment variable setting a proxy, you can set proxy to "" to override it. All operations that are performed over an HTTP proxy will trans‐ parently be converted to HTTP. It means that certain protocol specific operations might not be available. This is not the case if you can tunnel through the proxy, as one with the -p, --prox‐ ytunnel option. User and password that might be provided in the proxy string are URL decoded by curl. This allows you to pass in special charac‐ ters such as @ by using %40 or pass in a colon with %3a. The proxy host can be specified the exact same way as the proxy environment variables, including the protocol prefix (http://) and the embedded user + password. If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. -X, --request (HTTP) Specifies a custom request method to use when communicat‐ ing with the HTTP server. The specified request method will be used instead of the method otherwise used (which defaults to GET). Read the HTTP 1.1 specification for details and explana‐ tions. Common additional HTTP requests include PUT and DELETE, but related technologies like WebDAV offers PROPFIND, COPY, MOVE and more. Normally you don't need this option. All sorts of GET, HEAD, POST and PUT requests are rather invoked by using dedicated com‐ mand line options. This option only changes the actual word used in the HTTP request, it does not alter the way curl behaves. So for example if you want to make a proper HEAD request, using -X HEAD will not suffice. You need to use the -I, --head option. The method string you set with -X will be used for all requests, which if you for example use -L, --location may cause unintended side-effects when curl doesn't change request method according to the HTTP 30x response codes - and similar. (FTP) Specifies a custom FTP command to use instead of LIST when doing file lists with FTP. (POP3) Specifies a custom POP3 command to use instead of LIST or RETR. (Added in 7.26.0) (IMAP) Specifies a custom IMAP command to use instead of LIST. (Added in 7.30.0) (SMTP) Specifies a custom SMTP command to use instead of HELP or VRFY. (Added in 7.34.0) If this option is used several times, the last one will be used. --xattr When saving output to a file, this option tells curl to store certain file metadata in extended file attributes. Currently, the URL is stored in the xdg.origin.url attribute and, for HTTP, the content type is stored in the mime_type attribute. If the file system does not support extended attributes, a warning is issued. -y, --speed-time

 

© Lightnetics 2018

Looks like your connection to Lightnetics was lost, please wait while we try to reconnect.